Melting Rock Into Metal Again


Frank Black’s third solo album, The Cult of Ray, brings in David McCaffrey on bass and Scott Boutier on drums, who would remain in the lineup throughout the Catholics albums. Lyle Workman is still there on guitar, but Joey Santiago doesn’t contribute anything to this one. I believe it’s also when Frank started experimenting with recording live to two-track instead of playing different parts separately and then mixing them together, although there are a few overdubs on this record. The title is another reference to Ray Bradbury, bringing the science fiction influence front and center. Perhaps unsurprisingly, he relaxed these themes a bit after this album.

The Marsist – Starting out with a spoken-word bit, this somewhat distorted song is about a guy who wants to go to Mars (not an uncommon theme in Frank’s songs) and see the stone face. Of course, the face only really looks like one under certain lighting conditions, but the narrator here is obsessed with it.

Men in Black – Definitely one of the catchier songs on this album, it addresses the topic of the Men in Black before the Will Smith movie came out. I’m not sure when the term first originated, but apparently reported sightings of men in dark suits who intimidate people into not telling others about UFOs dates back as far as 1947. They must not have been all that effective if the people telling these stories mentioned both the UFOs and the enforcers themselves to the public. If Wikipedia is to be believed, the term was specifically used in a 1980 movie, but I don’t know if it had appeared before that. The song’s lyric “Are they grey or is it my own nation?” questions whether the titular men are aliens themselves or government agents tasked with hiding the existence of aliens. The song also refers to UFOs as “dinner plate specials, the shapes of cucumber,” but I first heard it as “the chef’s a cucumber.” There’s a video for this, which includes Frank making peanut butter and jelly sandwiches for the band during the instrumental break.

Punk Rock City – Despite the title and refrain, this is really more a straight-ahead rock song than a punk one. It’s about genetic engineering, but I don’t know if it’s referencing a particular science fiction story or just the idea in general. There’s a clever pun with “designer genes for all the punks to live on top.”

You Ain’t Me – Frank has said the main riff was inspired by Tommy Tutone, and you can certainly pretty easily sing “867-5309” to it. It’s probably mostly memorable for using the adjective “masturbatory,” but there’s also a nice shout-out to Lewis Carroll.

Jesus Was Right – A really catchy number from the point of view of a kid who skateboards and plays guitar and feels alienated from society. The title doesn’t seem to be about religion so much as it is about embracing pacifism and solitude.

I Don’t Want to Hurt You (Every Single Time) – I believe Frank has referred to this slower song as something he hoped everyone could identify with, and I think it works. It’s a sincere if somewhat meandering apology for just about anything that unintentionally goes wrong in a relationship. There’s a nice meta-reference with “the chorus was pretty much the same every time I wrote this song.” The “what’s-her-name” mentioned in tandem with King Kong is presumably Ann Darrow, played by Fay Wray.

Mosh, Don’t Pass the Guy – A rather frantic instrumental that I think might have been named by John Flansburgh of They Might Be Giants, or at least inspired by him. I know he used to refer to crowd-surfing as “pass the dude,” and was never keen on it. I get the impression Frank probably didn’t like it much either. I believe this has been performed with lyrics, although they’re actually just the title repeated over and over.

Kicked in the Taco – There seems to be a general theme of trying to avoid violence running through this album. Based on a brief Google search, the titular phrase actually refers to a woman being kicked in her genitalia, but Frank has said he took it from a Crispin Glover movie. I have heard that tacos are one of his favorite foods, and it allows him to rhyme it with both “Morocco” and “sirocco,” so maybe those are contributing factors. The sirocco is a Mediterranean wind, and “albondigas” is Spanish for “meatballs” as well as being a Mexican soup that contains them. And no, I’m not sure how they relate to the song.

The Creature Crawling – This one seems to be pretty straightforward, about a crawling animal; but there are some lines that suggest karma also plays a role. I saw a review that said Frank sounded like Mark Knopfler here, and while I can hear it, it’s not as obvious as on “Calistan.”

The Adventure and the Resolution – Another instrumental, but it’s more complex than “Mosh.” I can’t tell if there’s supposed to be a clear divide between what’s considered the adventure and what’s the resolution.

Dance War – I get the impression fans don’t care for this one too much. It’s not one of Frank’s better songs, but it’s not bad either. It takes another look at violent dancing, and while we were told earlier on the album to mosh rather than passing the guy, this one makes it sound like moshing isn’t necessarily a good idea either. The narrator here seems to be using the mosh pit as a way to work out aggression.

The Cult of Ray – The title track is one of the best songs on here, being catchy and also seeming rather meaningful, although I can’t tell what a lot of it actually means. Part of it has to do with Frank hearing Bradbury speak, and taking his philosophy to heart. There’s a theme about how humanity is destroying the world, but that doesn’t mean I have any idea who the old man in a coffee can is. I’ve read a few things by Bradbury, but if any of the more cryptic lyrics are references to his work, they aren’t to anything I’m familiar with.

The Last Stand of Shazeb Andleeb – A true and very tragic story about a Pakistani student at Narbonne High School in Harbor City, California, who was beaten and stomped to death in 1995. It’s a sad but powerful way to end the album.tttt

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A Campy Series


Wet Hot American Summer: First Day of Camp – Beth and I actually watched the original movie just a few years ago, even though she was a fan of The State back when it was still airing on television. I remember some parts of it being really funny, but there was also quite a bit that I didn’t remember. I’m pretty sure I didn’t write a review of it, for whatever reason. That took place on the last day of summer camp, and the new series is set on the first day. Most of the actors returned, and the fact that they’re now fifteen years older (and that’s taking into account that some of the ones who played teenagers were ALREADY too old to do so convincingly even back when the movie was made) is made into a joke. Director and co-writer David Wain also appeared as a character this time. What I think really worked here was that they really played up the absurdity and the fact that it was set in 1981. There’s a whole espionage subplot involving the dumping of glowing green toxic waste, which also includes characters hacking the government’s computer system with a single password, a judge accepting eight-inch floppy disks as case-breaking evidence despite no one even looking at what was on them, and Michael Showalter playing a totally unhinged President Reagan.

It also gives a back story for the talking can of vegetables in the film, specifically that the former camp director fell into the toxic waste while carrying the can, resulting in their being fused together.

Also spoofed were the snooty rich kids at a nearby camp causing trouble for little reason, and a journalist going undercover as a teenager to get a story. It came across as more of a totally absurd spoof than the affectionate parody that the original movie was (well, much of the time, anyway), and I think that worked in its favor. And “Weird Al” Yankovic makes an appearance.

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My Teacher Is a Devil


Okay, this Tumblr post really caught my attention. I already knew about the idea that demons, and sometimes even the Devil himself, could teach many arts and sciences to mankind. The only problem is that they’re going to turn on you whenever they get the chance, so you have to keep a really close eye on them.

Among others, Gamigin teaches liberal arts, Barbas mechanical arts, Buer philosophy and botany, Berith alchemy, Astaroth mathematics, Forneus languages, Stolas astronomy, and so on.

But how does Buer manage to write on the board?

There’s actually a lot of overlap there; I kind of wonder if all of these demons still have jobs. I mean, Satan presumably invented downsizing, right? The idea of demons as teachers predates Christianity, with Socrates claiming that he had a daimon as a guide.

For Christians, a lot of this information was compiled in the Lesser Key of Solomon. And I’m sure you know about Dr. Johann Faust summoning Mephistopheles in order to learn everything there is to know.

Depending on whom you ask, the message might be that there are some things humans weren’t meant to know, if the only way to do so was by consorting with the forces of darkness. On the other hand, who hasn’t had a teacher they suspected of coming from Hell?


There are many different legends of a school of black magic, often with Satan as the head teacher. Domdaniel fits into this type, but the most famous might be Scholomance, as mentioned by Bram Stoker as a school Dracula attended.

It’s said to have been located in Transylvania, but there are stories of other such schools in many other hidden locations. In Iceland, it was known as Svartiskoli, or the Black School.

Picture by Maria Knizhnikova
This name might well have taken on some unfortunate implications in the United States prior to Brown v. Board of Education. Well, unfortunate implications other than Satan being in charge, that is. Such schools would only accept a limited number of students, and the last one to leave the place after their courses had been completed would be taken by the Devil as his henchman. They’d have to create lightning and ride around on a dragon distributing it. That sounds cool, but I hear the boss is a real jerk. The school itself is pitch-black inside, and books are written in letters of fire. In order to produce a book, you have only to say its name. They’re apparently big on independent study. Food is provided by a hairy gray disembodied hand. The Icelandic legend features three students who attended the school at the same time. When Satan tried to capture the last one out, this student tricked him into taking his shadow instead. He never had a shadow after this, but I guess that’s a small price to pay for not having to work for the Evil One. I understand that he name Scholomance is used for a location in World of Warcraft, an indication that good legends never die.

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Here I Am in My Bucket Today, in the Middle


Frank Black’s second solo album, Teenager of the Year, is the first one I ever owned. I actually bought it from a guy in the student union building in my senior year of college. I had it for a while before listening to it, and when I did I thought it was interesting but not spectacular. Later, it grew on me, to the point that I’d say it’s probably one of my favorite albums by anybody. There are a whopping twenty-two songs on it, although some of them are quite short. Science fiction themes are common on this one as well.

Whatever Happened to Pong? – Basically just a nostalgic song for the early era of video games, when Pong reigned supreme and Frank and his brother would play it for money.

Thalassocracy – I always find it interesting when one song leads right into another with hardly any break in between, which is the case with these two. The title means supremacy on the seas, but Frank has said the song is actually about the idea of the Earth as a living organism. There’s also a pun on the name “Romanov.”

(I Want to Live on an) Abstract Plain – Musically, this one is much calmer than those last two. Thematically, Frank has a lot of songs about wanting to get away to some isolated place, be it central France or the planet Mars. This is a more bizarre take on that same theme. The section rhyming “abstract house” with “abstract mouse” reminds me of Shel Silverstein’s poem “Invisible Boy.”

Calistan – Is it just me, or does Frank sound a lot like Mark Knopfler on this one? It sounds somewhat reminiscent of “Sultans of Swing,” especially. It’s basically about California in sort of a dystopian future, looking back at the history of the place. I’m not sure why he pronounces “Navajo” with an English J sound, but I can’t say I know how the Navajo themselves pronounced it prior to the arrival of the Spanish. Frank also plays on this by saying John Wayne’s name as “Juan Wayne.” The line “St. Anne is still making it breezy” refers to the seasonal Santa Ana winds.

The Vanishing Spies – This one is about the Mars Observer, a probe with which NASA totally lost contact in August 1993. Frank reports almost having seen it.

Speedy Marie – A love song to Frank’s then-girlfriend, later wife and now ex-wife. I have to wonder what he thinks of it now that they’re no longer together. Not too long ago, Ben Folds had a song called “Belinda” about musicians having to perform songs about exes. Regardless, it’s still a great, very powerful song. The part after the second chorus is an acrostic spelling out the woman’s full name, Jean Marie Walsh. Frank had previously used that technique with the Pixies’ “Ana,” and would do so again on “Robert Onion.”

Headache – The main single from the album, and I’d say it’s deserving of that honor. It’s a little repetitive, but still quite enjoyable. I appreciate how Frank’s voice gets low and breathy during the “Well, I found you” part. The opening line makes me think of Madeleine L’Engle’s A Wrinkle in Time, although I think Frank might have actually taken it from something else that used the same phrase.

The video reminds me of the one for They Might Be Giants’ “Ana Ng,” what with its being in black and white, showing the singer at a desk, and doing a close-up on a map at one point.

I guess that’s not too weird as they have the same director, Adam Bernstein, who was also responsible for Sir Mix-a-Lot’s “Baby Got Back” video.

Sir Rockaby – A sort of cosmic lullaby, with Frank showing off his falsetto. He said before that he wanted Ray Davies to write the lyrics for him, but even though he sent Ray the music, nothing came of it.

Freedom Rock – At its most basic, it’s a song about thinking for yourself and not wanting to listen to music just because it’s popular. I seem to recall reading somewhere that the bit about “the pleasure of tones that belongs to the guy with no ear” is about a deaf person, but I can’t really see how that makes sense. Oh, well.

Two Reelers – Frank’s tribute to and defense of the Three Stooges, using the real names of Curly, Shemp, and Larry. Among the trivia mentioned are that Curly shaved his head to play the role, and that Larry could play the violin. Their theatrical shorts were two-reelers, and Jules White directed most of them. This is also another song with a sharp distinction between the chaotic verses and the more melodic chorus.

Fiddle Riddle – I’m not entirely sure what this song is about, which I guess is why it’s a riddle. I think it’s been stated that it’s at least partially from the point of view of the planet (sort of like “Thalassocracy,” then), and how machines could continue functioning long after humanity has died out. Not sure what that has to do with fiddles, and it’s not like there’s any violin on the song. It actually has kind of a reggae beat, and there’s a bit of “Chopsticks” in the solo.

Ole Mulholland – William Mulholland was responsible for the building of the Los Angeles Aqueduct, which brought water to the city from the Owens Valley. The opening words “There it is! Take it!” were said by Mulholland himself during the opening ceremony, and the rant during the bridge is also a quote from the engineer. Job Harriman was a socialist candidate for mayor who criticized the aqueduct, and Mulholland’s response was rather sarcastic. I don’t know whether he pronounced “Los Angeles” with a hard G or that’s a callback on Frank’s part. The song also mentions author Ray Bradbury, who was responsible for some of the concepts that went into the design of shopping malls. Mulholland, Harriman, and Bradbury would all feature in later songs of Frank’s as well.

Fazer Eyes – Honestly, these next few songs kind of blend together for me. That’s not to say they’re bad, just that I sometimes try to remember the words to one and start thinking of another instead. This might be another song about a UFO sighting, but I’m not as sure about this as I am some of the others.

I Could Stay Here Forever – Another love song with cosmic ramifications, this time including a reference to the speed of light and a comparison of the narrator’s relationship to that of salt-licking behemoths. I’m not sure if this refers to an actual kind of animal or not. Since a monster was used to represent the Los Angeles metropolitan area a few songs ago, I don’t even know whether it’s literal.

The Hostess with the Mostest – This one is much more of a fast rock number than the last two, but I still tend not to remember it quite as well. Frank has pretty much confirmed that it’s about the Del Amo Mall in Torrance, California, which was the world’s largest shopping mall until 1992. It mentions Laurasia, the prehistoric supercontinent of which North America used to be part.

Superabound – One of my favorites, partially for the way the quiet beginning merges into the rest of the song, but also because of all the references, some of which I still can’t figure out. The first verse discusses P.T. Barnum and his “see the egress” signs, a trick of his based on the fact that rubes didn’t always know “egress” meant “exit.” I don’t think anybody knows what an ishist is, and even Frank himself has forgotten, or perhaps just doesn’t want to tell anybody. This definition of “ishism” at Urban Dictionary makes sense, but of course anyone can edit that page, and this might have been a case of someone wanting to fool Frank’s fans. In fact, pretty much all of the Google results that make any sense to me at all are from after the song was released. It also makes for one of the song’s weird rhyme patterns, with the second verse rhyming it with “wish list” and “dish kissed; then “potlatch,” “sasquatch,” and “mismatch” in the final verse. I’ve seen it suggested that the song itself is about the boredom that would come from immortality, and this forum post suggests that the line “A space is made by telephone” could be a reference to the long gap on Nixon’s tapes.

Big Red – A song about the terraforming of Mars, with kind of a fun surf sound to it and a lot of breathy singing from Frank. He’s said it was inspired by Kim Stanley Robinson’s Mars trilogy, which I haven’t read. I assume the “mule they call Sal” is a reference to the Erie Canal song that we used to sing in elementary school. And Mars having canals is based on a famous mistranslation; what it actually has are channels.

Space Is Gonna Do Me Good – This is at least partially about launching spacecraft with a giant catapult. I had thought the reference to “the islands of Phoenix in 2016” (hey, that’s only a year away now) might be about the flooding of Arizona due to global warming, although it could also mean the Phoenix Islands in the Pacific Ocean. The “man Ray” mentioned toward the end might well be Bradbury again, although the phrasing sounds like it could also be about the artist Man Ray. I like the way Frank says exaggerates the H’s in “hardihood” and “Hollywood.”

White Noise Maker – This one seems rather more straightforward, being yet another escape song, but this time not about physical travel. It’s about wanting to drain out the obnoxious noise of the world with a white noise machine.

Pure Denizen of the Citizens Band – As far as I can tell, it’s about someone who doesn’t drive a truck arguing for his right to use CB radio. I particularly appreciate the spoken bit at the end that sounds like it’s actually coming over a radio.

Bad, Wicked World – This fast-paced number with a cool guitar solo in the middle is about the television show The Invaders from the late 1960s, about an architect named David Vincent who’s discovered alien invaders who can be distinguished by their non-bending pinky fingers. I’ve never seen the show, but Vincent is definitely a character who belongs in one of Frank’s songs, a seeming eccentric who never gives up despite society’s disbelief.

Pie in the Sky – Another space-related number ends the record, this time with lines that sound like they could come from a children’s song: “So stamp your feet and clap your hands/Get out of your seat and do a little dance.”

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Stuck on Re-Pete


Many of my peers fondly recall watching The Adventures of Pete and Pete on Nickelodeon. I’m not one of them, as we didn’t have cable at the time. Beth enjoyed the show, however, and showed me the DVDs. For some reason, only the first two seasons have been released, and the episodes aren’t always arranged in order. We watched those two seasons, plus some extra episodes that predate the official series, and I liked it. Beth says it reminds her of Jean Shepherd, what with its making common childhood events and problems into epic adventures. It could get somewhat absurd, with everyday scenarios leading to such plot elements as building a command center in the basement, finding a buried car on the beach, planting land mines in the neighbors’ yards, and the younger Pete trying to tunnel out of his house after being grounded. Some of the humor also comes from characters taking their jobs incredibly seriously: an ice cream man who never takes off his costume, a crossing guard who hardly ever leaves his post, a math teacher who’s obsessed with numbers, etc. At one point, a connection is made between the atomic bomb and a slushie drink. And there’s a superhero living in the neighborhood. He’s sort of like Little Pete’s imaginary friend, except he’s real.

Celebrities appearing on the show include Steve Buscemi, Iggy Pop, Debbie Harry, LL Cool J, Chris Elliott, Janeane Garofalo, Bebe Neuwirth, Michael Stipe. I’m not sure whether Syd Straw, who played the math teacher, counts as a celebrity. She appeared quite prominently in the They Might Be Giants documentary, and I didn’t know who she was. Apparently she’s a musician, but mostly a backup singer for more famous artists.

The band that performed the opening theme song, Polaris, contained two members who would later be part of Frank Black’s band, the Catholics. Of the child actors, the one who went on to the most fame afterwards was Michelle Trachtenberg.

Big Pete (Michael Maronna) now mostly does electrical work for movies and television, while I understand Ellen (Alison Fanelli) is working for the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (or at least was a few years ago).

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All I Know Is What I Read in the Papers


The Ozmapolitan was an interesting promotional tool, first coming out in 1904 to advertise The Marvelous Land of Oz and the upcoming Queer Visitors from the Marvelous Land of Oz comic series. It was presented as an actual newspaper from Oz, albeit with some advertisements that probably wouldn’t have made a whole lot of sense in Oz itself. Still, in addition to articles giving overviews of upcoming books, it also included some unrelated ones about Oz, as well as classified ads and sports and society columns. Whether L. Frank Baum actually wrote all of it is still a point of some contention. Another very brief one came out the following year to promote The Woggle-Bug Book, and then the idea seems to have been forgotten until 1926, when Ruth Plumly Thompson and the publisher revived it to advertise the new Ozmite Clubs as well as the latest books. While presented in the newspaper format, it was specifically said to be for fans in the Outside World rather than actual residents of Oz. Thompson produced three of these newspapers, and the concept came up every once in a while after that as well. Dick Martin wrote a few in 1963 through 1970, and Hungry Tiger Press did a few to promote Oz-Story Magazine. I also remember the International Wizard of Oz Club distributing one when The Wicked Witch of Oz was new, and the program for the first Munchkin Convention I attended back in 1992 did the same. I might still have these around somewhere, but that would require some searching. Most of the issues are available to read here, and Joe Bongiorno’s issue about Adolf Hitler in Oz is up here.


These papers include both interesting information that adds to the canon, and some that seemingly contradicts it. For instance, the first issue refers to a plan to expand the Emerald City, which seems a little difficult to do when the city is surrounded by a wall. Joe has guessed that it might actually be about the expansion of the palace that must have taken place in order to make the Wizard’s room less isolated. The 1927 one mentions Tik-Tok swimming in the Truth Pond. Another refers to a wager made in pequots, possibly a unit of currency, although in our world they’re a tribe that lived in Connecticut. The issue promoting Giant Horse reports that the Cowardly Lion has taken up smoking and that there’s a special room in the palace to which frowning people are banished, both of which are pretty unsettling. And the Gnome King issue sees Ozma raising the number of mortals allowed to live in Oz from fifty to one hundred. It says there are currently twelve living there. Okay, there’s Dorothy, Uncle Henry, Aunt Em, the Wizard, the Shaggy Man and his brother, Betsy Bobbin, Trot, Cap’n Bill, Button-Bright, Notta Bit More, and Bob Up. That’s twelve as of that time, so somebody was paying attention. I wonder if they’ve reached the upper limit yet, and if so whether they raised it.


Although the first issue (or at least the first issue published in the Outside World) refers to the Ozmapolitan as the only newspaper in Oz, other sources mention the Gillikin Times, Quadling Quarterly, Emerald City Mirror, Pumperdink Press, Regalia Report, and Oogaboo News. Interestingly, the reference to the Mirror in Queen Ann was changed to the Ozmapolitan for the Royal Publisher edition. Barberville also has copies of Cozmopolitan magazine and Captain Gillikin comics, the latter of which I’d like to learn more about. Gina Wickwar’s Toto of Oz has King Petrol of Grease (an island in the Gillikin Country) reading the Oil Street Journal; and Gnome King mentions the Nome Kingdom’s Nome Man’s Daily (okay, Gnome Man’s Daily in Thompson’s spelling), which is printed on a thin sheet of silver. I’d certainly be up for reading an Ozian newspaper. Just don’t nobody bring me no bad news.

Posted in Advertising, Dick Martin, L. Frank Baum, Oz, Oz Authors, Ruth Plumly Thompson | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 4 Comments

Mutation Sensation

I’ve said before that most of my knowledge of the X-Men franchise comes from the 1990s cartoon, but I did recently check out a few collections of the comics from the library. The X-Men comic started in 1963, created by Stan Lee and Josh Kirby, is a superhero story that deals with prejudice and civil rights.

Professor Xavier and Magneto came to be seen as parallels of Martin Luther King and Malcolm X, although they don’t exactly fit. After all, they’re both white, and Malcolm X wasn’t a terrorist. Also, the X-Men started out as four white guys and one token white woman.

They later became much more diverse, however, and one of those white guys turned blue.

Obviously the similarities to civil rights movements don’t entirely work when some mutants have powers that are genuinely dangerous, essentially built-in weapons. That’s still no reason they should be hunted down or isolated from society, though. It’s a little confusing because mutation is something that happens all the time, but it doesn’t generally grant superpowers. From what I’ve seen, the explanation for the super-mutants (whom the Professor has dubbed “Homo Superior,” which I’m sure doesn’t help curb the anti-mutant prejudice) is related to one specific gene, although that doesn’t explain how it can affect totally different parts of the body. The Professor has a machine called Cerebro that he uses to scan for mutants, but I don’t think it’s ever indicated whether he mostly just finds people with an extra toe or something. Not to mention that people in the Marvel Universe seem quite fine with superheroes who weren’t born with their powers, as if it would really make a difference to laypeople.


The comics I recently read were mostly from the 1980s, dealing with the introduction of Kitty Pryde and Jean Grey’s stint as Phoenix.

The Phoenix Saga was incorporated into the cartoon, but I don’t think I saw enough relevant episodes to get a good overview. It’s also pretty complicated in the comics. From what I’ve gathered, the Phoenix Force is a cosmic entity that takes control of Jean, a sort of thing that happens surprisingly often in the Marvel Universe. With her newfound power, she saved the universe, but was later manipulated by the villain Mastermind into becoming the evil Dark Phoenix.

In this form, she devoured a star, causing all life on an orbiting planet to die out. Phoenix committed suicide after that, but it was later found that this being wasn’t actually Jean, but some sort of doppelganger of her. Still, remnants of each remained within the other. It’s utterly convoluted and doesn’t really make sense, but I do appreciate how comics pretty much always provide an out, providing you don’t mind outlandish plot devices.

Another storyline was Days of Future Past, in which an adult Kitty in the year 2013 (that was the future back then, remember) sends her consciousness back in time to prevent the assassination of Senator Kelly by Mystique. This was the basis for both a story arc in the cartoon and the 2014 movie, although it was Bishop who went back in time in the former and Wolverine in the latter (although Kitty is involved). I haven’t seen the movie, but I remember several episodes of the cartoon ended with Bishop returning to the future and declaring that nothing had changed. Of course, he could keep going back and trying again.

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